Reduced / Sequestered
(To Implement Solution)
Biomass energy is a “bridge” solution—one that can help the world transition from fossil-fuel power to 100 percent clean, renewable energy. Until energy storage grows and the grid becomes more flexible, it can help meet electricity demand, complementing variable wind and solar power.
Carbon-rich biomass can be harvested to produce heat, create steam for electricity production, or be processed into oil or gas. Doing so trades in carbon that is already in circulation, cycling from atmosphere to plants and back again. Grow plants and sequester carbon. Process and burn biomass. Emit carbon. Repeat. It produces net-zero new emissions, so long as use and replenishment remain in balance.
Biomass energy is a true solution only if it uses appropriate feedstock, such as waste from mills and agriculture or sustainably grown perennial crops. Using annual grain crops like corn and sorghum depletes groundwater and requires high inputs of energy. Using native forests is nothing less than an atrocity.
It is crucial to manage the drawbacks of biomass energy through regulation. Most important to bear in mind is that biomass—carefully deployed—is a means to reach a clean energy future, not the destination itself.
This analysis assumes all biomass used for electricity generation is derived from perennial bioenergy feedstocks—not forests, annuals, or waste—and replaces conventional coal, oil, and natural gas. By 2050, biomass power could avoid 2.5–3.6 gigatons of greenhouse gas emissions with associated marginal first costs of US$51–US$62 billion. As clean wind and solar power combined with energy storage become more available in a flexible grid, the need for biomass power will have the potential to be reduced in several regions of the world.