Solutions Cost Per Metric Ton

* Gigatons CO2 Equivalent Reduced / Sequestered (2020–2050)

Solution Gigatons Reduced* (PDS1) Gigatons Reduced* (PDS2) Net First Cost $ in Billions (PDS1) Net First Cost $ in Billions (PDS1) Initial Cost $ Per Tonne (PDS1) Initial Cost $ Per Tonne (PDS2)
Smart Thermostats 6.91 7.25 $162.48 $181.41 $23.51 $25.02
Building Automation Systems 9.55 14.01 $287.70 $393.35 $30.13 $28.08
LED Lighting 14.45 15.69 $-1890.00 $-2160.00 $-130.80 $-137.67
Insulation 15.38 18.54 $710.37 $791.29 $46.19 $42.68
Dynamic Glass 0.34 0.54 $57.79 $83.80 $169.97 $155.19
High-Performance Glass 8.82 11.34 $7840.00 $9520.00 $888.89 $839.51
Green and Cool Roofs 0.53 0.99 $569.08 $827.10 $1073.74 $835.45
District Heating 6.18 9.68 $218.34 $325.50 $35.33 $33.63
High-Efficiency Heat Pumps 4.04 9.05 $76.10 $118.34 $18.84 $13.08
Solar Hot Water 3.41 13.73 $680.00 $2630.00 $199.41 $191.55
Low-Flow Fixtures 0.93 1.52 $0.44 $1.25 $0.47 $0.82
Water Distribution Efficiency 0.61 0.86 $7.87 $10.96 $12.90 $12.74
Building Retrofitting $ $
Net-Zero Buildings $ $
Concentrated Solar Power 18.00 21.51 $481.52 $576.86 $26.75 $26.82
Distributed Solar Photovoltaics 26.65 64.86 $517.31 $352.45 $19.41 $5.43
Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaics 40.83 111.59 $-220.00 $-1340.00 $-5.39 $-12.01
Micro Wind Turbines 0.09 0.11 $52.87 $69.56 $587.44 $632.36
Onshore Wind Turbines 46.95 143.56 $920.00 $1890.00 $19.60 $13.17
Offshore Wind Turbines 10.22 9.89 $640.88 $729.51 $62.71 $73.76
Geothermal Power 6.15 9.17 $84.33 $93.08 $13.71 $10.15
Small Hydropower 1.65 3.21 $44.75 $74.21 $27.12 $23.12
Ocean Power 1.27 0.80 $199.06 $258.17 $156.74 $322.71
Biomass Power 2.62 3.59 $56.48 $69.24 $21.56 $19.29
Nuclear Power 3.17 3.64 $176.92 $176.92 $55.81 $48.60
Waste to Energy 6.27 5.24 $224.81 $156.08 $35.85 $29.79
Landfill Methane Capture 3.89 -1.48 $-2.57 $-2.57 $-0.66 $1.74
Methane Digesters 6.02 7.05 $138.13 $182.09 $22.95 $25.83
Grid Flexibility $ $
Microgrids $ $
Distributed Energy Storage $ $
Utility-Scale Energy Storage $ $
Plant-Rich Diets 78.33 103.11 $0.00 $0.00
Reduced Food Waste 88.50 102.20 $0.00 $0.00
Forest Protection 5.55 8.83 $0.00 $0.00
Indigenous Peoples’ Forest Tenure 8.69 12.51 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Grassland Protection 3.35 4.25 $0.00 $0.00
Peatland Protection and Rewetting 25.40 40.27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Coastal Wetland Protection 1.20 1.62 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Sustainable Intensification for Smallholders 1.36 0.68 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Conservation Agriculture 12.81 8.08 $89.78 $56.85 $7.01 $7.04
Regenerative Annual Cropping 15.12 23.21 $77.10 $115.27 $5.10 $4.97
Nutrient Management 2.77 11.48 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Farm Irrigation Efficiency 1.13 2.07 $222.87 $386.92 $197.23 $186.92
Improved Rice Production 9.85 14.43 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
System of Rice Intensification 2.90 4.44 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Alternative Cement 7.70 15.56 $-61.38 $-61.38 $-7.97 $-3.94
Bioplastics 1.33 2.48 $82.70 $97.76 $62.18 $39.42
Composting 1.13 1.40 $-26.90 $-35.50 $-23.81 $-25.36
Recycling 10.36 11.29 $9.01 $9.69 $0.87 $0.86
Recycled Paper 2.28 2.90 $-1620.94 $-1441.50 $-710.94 $-497.07
Refrigerant Management 57.15 57.15 $0.00 $0.00
Alternative Refrigerants 42.73 48.75 $0.00 $0.00
Walkable Cities 2.83 3.51 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Bicycle Infrastructure 2.73 4.63 $-2420.00 $-3130.00 $-886.45 $-676.03
Electric Bicycles 1.39 1.55 $-402.06 $-446.01 $-289.25 $-287.75
Carpooling 9.06 11.07 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Public Transit 9.42 15.42 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
High-Speed Rail 1.26 3.62 $640.00 $1740.00 $507.94 $480.66
Telepresence 2.64 4.43 $521.52 $832.73 $197.55 $187.98
Hybrid Cars 1.61 4.71 $-4.55 $-3.40 $-2.83 $-0.72
Efficient Trucks 9.15 10.77 $502.57 $566.56 $54.93 $52.61
Electric Trains 1.91 3.25 $660.00 $1430.00 $345.55 $440.00
Electric Cars 7.66 9.76 $-572.68 $-602.00 $-74.76 $-61.68
Efficient Ocean Shipping 6.72 9.83 $720.00 $1010.00 $107.14 $102.75
Efficient Aviation 5.29 5.82 $3470.00 $3790.00 $655.95 $651.20
Biogas for Cooking 4.65 9.70 $24.72 $51.59 $5.32 $5.32
Clean Cooking 31.38 76.34 $136.64 $302.76 $4.35 $3.97
Temperate Forest Restoration 19.42 27.85 $0.00 $0.00
Tropical Forest Restoration 54.45 85.14 $0.00 $0.00
Managed Grazing 13.72 20.92 $31.73 $49.14 $2.31 $2.35
Silvopasture 26.58 42.31 $206.75 $272.91 $7.78 $6.45
Multistrata Agroforestry 13.26 23.94 $70.44 $120.03 $5.31 $5.01
Tree Intercropping 15.03 24.40 $146.89 $227.02 $9.77 $9.30
Perennial Staple Crops 16.34 32.87 $96.53 $209.53 $5.91 $6.37
Perennial Biomass Production 4.00 7.04 $195.02 $338.28 $48.76 $48.05
Abandoned Farmland Restoration 12.48 20.32 $98.16 $159.91 $7.87 $7.87
Tree Plantations (on Degraded Land) 22.04 35.09 $91.89 $141.68 $4.17 $4.04
Bamboo Production 7.70 19.60 $63.30 $158.98 $8.22 $8.11
Coastal Wetland Restoration 0.76 1.00 $0.00 $0.00
Biochar Production 1.36 3.00 $123.54 $244.94 $90.84 $81.65
Family Planning and Education 68.90 68.90 $0.00 $0.00
Improved Aquaculture 0.50 0.78 $151.37 $241.87 $302.74 $310.09
Improved Cattle Feed 4.42 15.05 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Recycled Metals 4.31 12.34 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Improved Manure Management 3.34 6.09 $19.93 $37.16 $5.97 $6.10
Reduced Plastics 3.76 5.40 $0.00 $0.00
Recycled Plastics 0.52 1.69 $-48.50 $-158.06 $-93.27 $-93.53
Seafloor Protection 3.80 5.14 $0.00 $0.00
Methane Leak Management 25.83 31.29 $127.95 $135.42 $4.95 $4.33
Seaweed Farming 2.50 4.72 $132.14 $249.80 $52.86 $52.92
Improved Fisheries 1.01 1.54 $0.00 $0.00
Macroalgae Protection and Restoration 2.61 3.78 $0.00 $0.00
1050.91
1637.26