Solutions Cost Per Tonne

* Gigatons CO2 Equivalent Reduced / Sequestered (2020–2050)

Solution Gigatons Reduced* (PDS1) Gigatons Reduced* (PDS2) Net First Cost $ in Billions (PDS1) Net First Cost $ in Billions (PDS1) Initial Cost $ Per Tonne (PDS1) Initial Cost $ Per Tonne (PDS2)
Smart Thermostats 6.99 7.40 $155.20 $171.84 $22.20 $23.22
Building Automation Systems 6.47 10.48 $225.23 $312.32 $34.81 $29.80
LED Lighting 16.07 17.53 $-2468.74 $-2825.93 $-153.62 $-161.21
Insulation 16.97 19.01 $751.13 $831.28 $44.26 $43.73
Dynamic Glass 0.29 0.47 $69.09 $103.30 $238.24 $219.79
High-Performance Glass 10.04 12.63 $3208.19 $3433.97 $319.54 $271.89
Green and Cool Roofs 0.60 1.10 $623.65 $954.38 $1039.42 $867.62
District Heating 6.28 9.85 $226.82 $337.38 $36.12 $34.25
High-Efficiency Heat Pumps 4.16 9.29 $77.88 $120.12 $18.72 $12.93
Solar Hot Water 3.59 14.29 $728.82 $2736.14 $203.01 $191.47
Low-Flow Fixtures 0.91 1.56 $1.48 $2.37 $1.63 $1.52
Water Distribution Efficiency 0.66 0.94 $17.40 $24.19 $26.36 $25.73
Building Retrofitting $ $
Net-Zero Buildings $ $
Concentrated Solar Power 18.60 23.96 $474.29 $566.38 $25.50 $23.64
Distributed Solar Photovoltaics 27.98 68.64 $479.59 $255.00 $17.14 $3.72
Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaics 42.32 119.13 $-290.54 $-1527.06 $-6.87 $-12.82
Micro Wind Turbines 0.09 0.13 $52.84 $69.64 $587.11 $535.69
Onshore Wind Turbines 47.21 147.72 $842.91 $1658.06 $17.85 $11.22
Offshore Wind Turbines 10.44 11.42 $632.19 $720.77 $60.55 $63.11
Geothermal Power 6.19 9.85 $80.60 $86.45 $13.02 $8.78
Small Hydropower 1.69 3.28 $49.36 $80.07 $29.21 $24.41
Ocean Power 1.38 1.38 $200.31 $259.99 $145.15 $188.40
Biomass Power 2.52 3.57 $51.12 $62.37 $20.29 $17.47
Nuclear Power 2.65 3.23 $192.30 $192.30 $72.57 $59.54
Waste-to-Energy 2.04 3.00 $134.69 $149.92 $66.02 $49.97
Landfill Methane Capture 2.18 -1.60 $-4.31 $-1.98 $0.00
Methane Digesters 9.83 6.18 $284.78 $173.40 $28.97 $28.06
Grid Flexibility $ $
Microgrids $ $
Distributed Energy Storage $ $
Utility-Scale Energy Storage $ $
Plant-Rich Diets 65.01 91.72 $0.00 $0.00
Reduced Food Waste 90.70 101.71 $0.00 $0.00
Forest Protection 5.52 8.75 $0.00 $0.00
Indigenous Peoples’ Forest Tenure 8.69 12.93 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Grassland Protection 3.35 4.25 $0.00 $0.00
Peatland Protection and Rewetting 26.03 41.93 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Coastal Wetland Protection 0.99 1.45 $0.00 $0.00
Sustainable Intensification for Smallholders 1.36 0.68 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Conservation Agriculture 13.40 9.43 $91.88 $65.23 $6.86 $6.92
Regenerative Annual Cropping 14.52 22.27 $77.90 $115.82 $5.37 $5.20
Nutrient Management 2.34 12.06 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Farm Irrigation Efficiency 1.13 2.07 $222.87 $386.92 $197.23 $186.92
Improved Rice Production 9.44 13.82 $0.00 $0.00
System of Rice Intensification 2.78 4.26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Alternative Cement 7.98 16.10 $-63.46 $-63.46 $-7.95 $-3.94
Bioplastics 0.96 3.80 $88.15 $25.47 $91.82 $6.70
Composting 2.14 3.13 $-60.60 $-83.75 $-28.32 $-26.76
Recycling 5.50 6.02 $10.26 $11.83 $1.87 $1.97
Recycled Paper 1.10 1.95 $455.76 $900.01 $414.33 $461.54
Refrigerant Management 57.75 57.75 $0.00 $0.00
Alternative Refrigerants 43.53 50.53 $0.00 $0.00
Walkable Cities 1.44 5.45 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Bicycle Infrastructure 2.56 6.65 $-2661.13 $-7538.47 $-1039.50 $-1133.60
Electric Bicycles 1.31 4.07 $-303.69 $-941.37 $-231.82 $-231.29
Carpooling 7.70 4.17 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
Public Transit 7.53 23.40 $0.00 $0.00
High-Speed Rail 1.30 3.77 $612.74 $1217.78 $471.34 $323.02
Telepresence 1.05 3.80 $104.42 $365.95 $99.45 $96.30
Hybrid Cars 7.89 4.63 $3563.27 $1707.46 $451.62 $368.78
Efficient Trucks 4.61 9.71 $507.70 $851.88 $110.13 $87.73
Electric Trains 0.10 0.65 $630.54 $2975.66 $6305.40 $4577.94
Electric Cars 11.87 15.68 $4666.77 $6017.67 $393.16 $383.78
Efficient Ocean Shipping 4.40 6.30 $532.31 $737.74 $120.98 $117.10
Efficient Aviation 6.27 9.18 $863.11 $878.14 $137.66 $95.66
Biogas for Cooking 4.65 9.70 $24.72 $51.59 $5.32 $5.32
Improved Clean Cookstoves 31.34 72.65 $136.46 $290.74 $4.35 $4.00
Temperate Forest Restoration 19.42 27.85 $0.00 $0.00
Tropical Forest Restoration 54.45 85.14 $0.00 $0.00
Managed Grazing 16.42 26.01 $33.57 $52.89 $2.04 $2.03
Silvopasture 26.58 42.31 $206.75 $272.91 $7.78 $6.45
Multistrata Agroforestry 11.30 20.40 $54.06 $92.12 $4.78 $4.52
Tree Intercropping 15.03 24.40 $146.89 $227.02 $9.77 $9.30
Perennial Staple Crops 15.45 31.26 $83.13 $190.25 $5.38 $6.09
Perennial Biomass Production 4.00 7.04 $230.32 $399.92 $57.58 $56.81
Abandoned Farmland Restoration 12.48 20.32 $98.16 $159.91 $7.87 $7.87
Tree Plantations (on Degraded Land) 22.24 35.94 $16.67 $72.09 $0.75 $2.01
Bamboo Production 8.27 21.31 $52.25 $161.94 $6.32 $7.60
Coastal Wetland Restoration 0.99 1.01 $0.00 $0.00
Biochar Production 2.22 4.39 $195.87 $383.30 $88.23 $87.31
Health and Education 85.42 85.42 $0.00 $0.00
1000.66
1583.66