Abandoned Farmland Restoration: Degraded farmland is often abandoned, but it need not be. Restoration can bring these lands back into productivity and sequester carbon in the process.
Biogas for Cooking: Anaerobic digesters process backyard or farmyard organic waste into biogas and digestate fertilizer. Biogas stoves can reduce emissions when replacing biomass or kerosene for cooking.
Clean Cooking: Improved clean cookstoves can address the pollution from burning wood or biomass in traditional stoves. Using various technologies, they reduce emissions and protect human health.
Coastal Wetland Protection: Mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrasses sequester huge amounts of carbon in plants and soil. Protecting them inhibits degradation and safeguards their carbon sinks.
Coastal Wetland Restoration: Agriculture, development, and natural disasters have degraded many coastal wetlands. Restoring mangrove forests, salt marshes, and seagrass beds to health revives carbon sequestration.
Conservation Agriculture: Conservation agriculture uses cover crops, crop rotation, and minimal tilling in the production of annual crops. It protects soil, avoids emissions, and sequesters carbon.
Distributed Solar Photovoltaics: Whether grid-connected or part of stand-alone systems, rooftop solar panels and other distributed solar photovoltaic systems offer hyper-local, clean electricity generation.
Family Planning and Education: Some initiatives, designed primarily to ensure rights and foster equality, also have cascading benefits to climate change. They include access to high-quality, voluntary reproductive health care and to high-quality, inclusive education, which are fundamental human rights and cornerstones of gender equality.
Farm Irrigation Efficiency: Pumping and distributing water is energy-intensive. Drip and sprinkler irrigation, among other practices and technologies, make the use of farm water more precise and efficient.
Forest Protection: In their biomass and soil, forests are powerful carbon storehouses. Protection prevents emissions from deforestation, shields that carbon, and enables ongoing carbon sequestration.
Geothermal Power: Underground reservoirs of steamy hot water are the fuel for geothermal power. The water can be piped to the surface to drive turbines that produce electricity without pollution.
Grassland Protection: Grasslands hold large stocks of carbon, largely underground. Protecting them shields their carbon stores and avoids emissions from conversion to agricultural land or development.
Improved Rice Production: Flooded rice paddies produce large quantities of methane. Improved production techniques, including alternate wetting and drying, can reduce methane emissions and sequester carbon.
Indigenous People’s Forest Tenure: Secure land tenure protects Indigenous peoples’ rights. With sovereignty, traditional practices can continue—in turn protecting ecosystems and carbon sinks and preventing emissions from deforestation.
Micro Wind Turbines: Micro wind turbines can generate clean electricity in diverse locations, from urban centers to rural areas, without access to centralized grids.
Microgrids: A microgrid is a localized grouping of distributed electricity generation technologies, paired with energy storage or backup generation and tools to manage demand or “load.”
Multistrata Agroforestry: Multistrata agroforestry systems mimic natural forests in structure. Multiple layers of trees and crops achieve high rates of both carbon sequestration and food production.
Nutrient Management: Overuse of nitrogen fertilizers—a frequent phenomenon in agriculture—creates nitrous oxide. More efficient use can curb these emissions and reduce energy-intensive fertilizer production.
Peatland Protection and Rewetting: Forestry, farming, and fuel extraction are among the threats to carbon-rich peatlands. Protection and rewetting can reduce emissions from degradation while supporting peatlands’ role as carbon sinks.
Reduced Food Waste: Roughly one-third of the world’s food is never eaten, which means the land and resources used and GHGs emitted in producing it were unnecessary. Interventions can reduce loss and waste as food moves from farm to fork, thereby reducing overall demand.
Regenerative Annual Cropping: Building on conservation agriculture with additional practices, regenerative annual cropping can include compost application, green manure, and organic production. It reduces emissions, increases soil organic matter, and sequesters carbon.
Silvopasture: An agroforestry practice, silvopasture integrates trees, pasture, and forage into a single system. Incorporating trees improves land health and significantly increases carbon sequestration.
Small Hydropower: Small hydropower systems capture the energy of free-flowing water without using dams. They can replace dirty diesel generators with clean electricity generation.
Sustainable Intensification for Smallholders: Sustainable intensification practices can increase smallholder yields which, in theory, reduce demand to clear additional land. Practices include intercropping, ecosystem-based pest management, and equal resources for women.
System of Rice Intensification: This is a holistic approach to sustainable rice cultivation. By minimizing water use and alternating wet and dry conditions, it minimizes methane production and emissions.
Temperate Forest Restoration: Almost all temperate forests have been altered in some way—timbered, converted to agriculture, or disrupted by development. Restoring them sequesters carbon in biomass and soil.
Tree Intercropping: Growing trees and annual crops together is a form of agroforestry. Tree intercropping practices vary, but all increase biomass, soil organic matter, and carbon sequestration.
Tropical Forest Restoration: Tropical forests have suffered extensive clearing, fragmentation, degradation, and depletion of biodiversity. Restoring these forests also restores their function as carbon sinks.